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Pluto last won the day on July 12 2011

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    European inland waterway history, including the transfer of technology during the early industrial revolution; wooden boat construction on inland waterways; the history of opening bridges; and the L&LC.

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    industrial historian
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  1. On river navigations, lock falls tend to be small and thus gate paddles can be used with little inconvenience. The introduction of ground paddles on the Willebroek Canal was probably because to lowest lock was tidal, resulting in a large fall at low tides. When canals were built, lock falls tended to be greater than on river navigations, making the problem of water falling onto a boat from upper gate paddles a problem. To overcome this, whilst reducing the number of locks by making them deeper, ground paddles were used. Where ground paddles were used, gate paddles were not fitted, and those fo
  2. The idea of gas powered canal boats is pretty old. This is a newspaper report from 1905.
  3. The first ground paddles were used on the Willebroek Canal, which opened in 1550. The engineer was Jean de Locquenghien. It is possible that Thomas Steers saw the locks in the 1690s, when he was fighting in William of Orange's army in the Low Countries. A few years after his return to England, he became the first Dock Engineer in Liverpool, and was involved with the Douglas, the Mersey & Irwell, and possibly the Weaver navigations. Around 1740, he was asked to take over as Engineer for the Newry Canal in Ireland, building the summit locks with ground paddles, the first time they had been u
  4. Although I do drink and eat meat (though vegetarian a few days a week), I like the traditional, non-touristy Heurigers for their general ambiance. For a guide to walking around Vienna, you could look at the site of my friend Heinrich Tinhofer, who has some excellent guides - http://www.walkinginside.at/spaziergange/ This restaurant alongside the old river in the city centre is worth visiting. It is in the old weir house, and has some interesting plans and photos of the old lock and navigation in this area.
  5. You need to visit the Austrian National Archives to look at AVA PKF PS1 1766, and several other items around this number. The one quoted is a detailed drawing of narrow boat construction done by Austrian visitors to England in 1795. One of them, Sebastian Maillard, then designed the Weiner Neustadt Kanal, for which there is a good exhibition in the museum at Traiskirchen. I helped with their research for the recent new display, illustrated below. I hope you have visited the lock, weir and bridge at Nussdorf built by Schemerl, who completed the canal started by Maillard. The two Heurigers in Nu
  6. You are, perhaps, not making a distinction between the spoken and written word. The spoken word can be colloquial, with all sorts on 'mistakes', and people will still appreciate what is being said as they have some form of contact with the speaker. However, the written word is usually read without the author being there. It needs to be well written, with correct punctuation, if you want to put over your ideas in a way that shows people that you have spent some time on putting those ideas into an understandable format, and it also suggests that your research is sound. The modern media, such as
  7. I don't know, as I was not there! However, Maillard was an engineering officer in the Hapsburg army, so I suspect he is pretty reliable in his observations.
  8. Pronunciation will change from place to place, as it usually does. On the L&LC, if you want to use the traditional local pronunciation, we have whanning holes. The origin is Germanic, coming from the German 'wenden' to turn. Basically, there is no 'correct' pronunciation, you have to specify that you are using the sounds people in a certain locality would pronounce the word.
  9. The Austrian engineer Maillard went through Preston Brook in 1797. In his book, which I expect to have ready for publication soon, he suggests that tunnels were built without towpaths to reduce the cost, and that iron rings and tarred ropes were expected to be fitted for hauling boats, as happened in the Worsley mines. He then goes on to describe his experiences in Preston Brook, which goes some way to answer your questions: To learn how it felt to pass through tunnels, my worthy companion Colonel Lieutenant Swoboda and I joined a boat at Preston Brook on a well-known canal, where
  10. I don't know who is in the film, but in the photo below, Edward Paget-Tomlinson is on the left and Tony Lewery on the right. We were moving Gifford from Preston Brook to Dutton in 1972.
  11. The first photo shows the site of Chapman's first skew bridge on the Naas Branch of the Grand Canal, built 1787. It seems to have been replaced fairly quickly, looking at its replacement. I was suggesting some form of dig on the site to see if any remains survived of the foundations, and the Irish canal historian, Ruth Delany, is looking on. The second photo is of Shee Bridge on the Grand Canal main line, built 1796. It is also skew, but with random stonework, so not a true skew bridge which should have 'corkscrew' pattern brick or stonework. The final photo shows the Stockton &
  12. Certainly interesting, but very British-centred. All the early technical books on how to build skew arches are either French or German, and they had moved on to using calculus when we were still only using log tables.
  13. I don't have details of one on the H&GC, but the first photo is Store Street before rendering, followed by March Barn on the Rochdale, another early example. It does depend upon what you call a skew bridge, the final photo is the Eanam bridge, showing the triangular section of stonework added to a conventional arch. Skew bridges should really have 'screw' stonework, rather than plain square stonework. I have added Cyril Boucher's section on skew bridges from his book on Rennie.
  14. The first skew arch bridges were probably built on the Naas branch of the Grand Canal in Ireland, though there is some uncertainty as to their exact method of construction. There are three types of design. The first is, in effect, a standard arch bridge with triangular extensions on either side to create a skew effect. These tend to date from before 1810, and there is a good example at Eanam on the L&LC. On the next type, there is a better skewed arch, with the foot of the arch sitting squarely on the foundation, as with a p[lain arch. This shape is comparatively easy to develop, and was t
  15. Pluto


    For paddle and rymer weirs, there were several reports done on those on the Thames circa 2011. https://library.thehumanjourney.net/654/ is one, and a search under Environment Agency paddle and rymer brings up others. There are many types of weir, with the French being particularly prolific in their design. My copy of the PIANC illustrated multi-lingual dictionary covers around 30 generic types, and there would be specific names given by the manufacturer of individual types, as each would have small variations in design.
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